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Ky.gov An Official Website of the Commonwealth of Kentucky

Energy and Environment Cabinet

Division of Water

Division of Water
Total Maximum Daily Load Program

TMDL Frequently Asked Questions

  1. Under what authority are you developing TMDLs?
  2.  
  3. What is a TMDL?
  4.  
  5. What is a pollutant?
  6.  
  7. What is a waterbody?
  8.  
  9. What is the scope of a TMDL?

  10. How does the TMDL document address other pollutants in the same watershed?
  11.  
  12. What does the term ‘load’ mean?
  13.  
  14. What is a designated use?
  15.  
  16. How do you calculate a TMDL?
  17.  
  18. Is there a list of waterbodies that require a TMDL?
  19.  
  20. What kinds of pollutant sources will the TMDL discuss?
  21.  
  22. What about illegal sources?
  23.  
  24. How does the TMDL regulate KPDES-permitted sources?
  25.  
  26. How does the TMDL regulate non-permitted sources?

  27. What is the Margin of Safety (MOS)?

  28. What is the Future Growth-WLA?

  29. How much does each source contribute?

  30. Can trades be made between sources?

  31. How does the TMDL fix the problem?

  32. So why develop TMDLs if they usually can’t fix the problem?

  33. How do you measure the amount of pollutant in a waterbody?

  34. Can E. coli or fecal coliform make me sick?

  35. What can people do to protect themselves from bacteria in water? 

  36. These streams are too small for swimming.  Why does this use apply?

  37. Why don’t you specifically protect paddlers and kayakers?

  38. How do I find where this impaired waterbody is in relation to my house?

  39. Is my drinking water safe?

  40. What can the people do in the watershed to help control pollution?

  41. What are good housekeeping practices? 

  42. How do you select the areas you are going to sample? 

  43. I want to take my own samples, who can analyze them?

  44. How can I get you to use my data?

  45. Your TMDL doesn’t take into account improvements in the watershed since the data was collected.

  46. Your land cover data is too old.

  47. Where can I see the data you used?

  48. Can we have public forum?

  49. The sampling data used to develop the TMDL are too old.

  50. How can the public participate?

  51. Once approved, what impact does the TMDL document have on regulation? 

  52. What is your reasonable assurance?

  53. How can I get rid of this TMDL?  Can the waterbody be delisted once a TMDL is approved?

  54. Will a watershed plan be developed?

  55. What impact does an approved TMDL have on my drinking water well?

  56. There is an impaired waterbody in our community and we don’t want a TMDL.  How can we prevent it?

  57. What are the next steps after the TMDL is approved (i.e. what does the TMDL mean)?

 

TMDL Frequently Asked Questions (Answers)

  1. QUESTION: Under what authority are you developing TMDLs?

    ANSWER: The 1972 Clean Water Act Section 303 requires states to make a list of impaired waters that require a Total Maximum Daily Load, or TMDL, and to develop TMDLs for each pollutant and associated designated use.
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  3. QUESTION: What is a TMDL?

    ANSWER: It is a Total Maximum Daily Load, which can be thought of as a pollutant diet. It is the amount of pollution loading that a waterbody can handle in a day and still meet its designated uses. This allowable loading is divided up among (or allocated to) various sources within the watershed. The word TMDL is used to refer to both the report or document that contains the TMDL, as well as the TMDL itself, which is given as a number.
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  5. QUESTION: What is a pollutant?

    ANSWER: A pollutant is a contaminant discharged into the waters of the United States. Pollutants include bacteria, metals, pH and nutrients; nutrients include nitrogen and phosphorus.
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  7. QUESTION: What is a waterbody?

    ANSWER: A waterbody can be a portion of a stream, called a stream segment, or a lake or spring. Stream segments are described in terms of river miles, with the zero mile point being at the mouth of the stream, and the highest number being at the top of the headwaters with the exception of the Ohio River, the river mile points decrease as one moves upstream.
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  9. QUESTION: What is the scope of a TMDL?

    ANSWER: TMDLs are written for a given pollutant-waterbody combination (PWC). While the TMDL document can contain TMDLs for more than one PWC, a single numeric TMDL must be written for each PWC. Thus a metals TMDL document may discuss both zinc and iron, but for a given stream segment that is impaired for both metals, separate numeric TMDLs are required for both zinc and iron. An individual PWC is sometimes referred to as an impairment. However, when a waterbody is said to be impaired, it may be for one or multiple pollutants.
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  11. QUESTION: How does the TMDL document address other pollutants in the same watershed?

    ANSWER: It does not address other pollutants. A separate TMDL is needed for any further impairments.
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  13. QUESTION: What does the term ‘load’ mean?

    ANSWER: Pollutant load is the amount of pollutant introduced into the waterbody per day. For instance, loading might be given in pounds per day for nutrients, or colonies per day for bacteria.
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  15. QUESTION: What is a designated use?

    ANSWER: Designated uses include:
    1. Primary Contact Recreation, or full-body immersion, that is, swimming.
    2. Secondary Contact Recreation, or partial immersion, which is normally referred to as wading and boating.
    3. Aquatic Life Use, which can include warm waters and also cold waters aquatic habitats, the latter support trout populations.
    4. Domestic Water Supply.
    5. Outstanding State Resource Waters, and;
    6. Fish Consumption, which is an implied use.

    These designated uses are implemented into the water quality standards adopted by the Energy and Environment Cabinet to achieve or protect and maintain each designated use that applies for any given waterbody. These designated uses provide the mechanism for managing, maintaining or achieving the expectations and goals for each applicable surface water body in the Commonwealth.

    To set the stage for improvement of water quality in the nation’s waters, the interim goal of the 1972 Clean Water Act is to improve water quality to a level that at least restores the swimmable and fishable qualities of water bodies, where possible.
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  17. QUESTION: How do you calculate a TMDL?

    ANSWER: The loading the waterbody can handle is calculated as a critical instream flow (or flows) multiplied by a target. The critical flow(s) represent the critical condition, which is the time when pollutant loading is expected to be at its worst. The target is a regulatory threshold, such as a Water Quality Criterion (WQC), which can be numeric or narrative. Bacteria and most metals have numeric WQCs, which can be directly used as TMDL targets. Narrative WQCs, on the other hand, need to be expressed as a number so a TMDL can be calculated; therefore some TMDLs describe how a numeric target was selected to represent the narrative WQC. Kentucky currently has narrative criteria for pollutants such as nutrients and sediment, so any nutrient or sediment TMDL would have to show how the TMDL target was derived.
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  19. QUESTION: Is there a list of waterbodies that require a TMDL?

    ANSWER: Yes, the Integrated Report to Congress on the Condition of Water Resources in Kentucky, Volume II. 303(d) List of Surface Waters contains a list of all waterbodies that require TMDLs. This list is published by KDOW every even-numbered year. The list can be found on our website: http://water.ky.gov/waterquality/Pages/IntegratedReport.aspx. You can also find a map that shows all of the impairments in Kentucky’s water bodies at the following link: http://watermaps.ky.gov/WaterHealthPortal/
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  21. QUESTION: What kinds of pollutant sources will the TMDL discuss?

    ANSWER: Sources that receive allocations fall into two categories, permitted sources and non-permitted sources:
    • Permitted sources are all those who hold a Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit. This includes permit holders such as wastewater treatment plants and industry that discharges to a waterbody by a pipe or ditch or other conveyance; it also includes surface mines, as well as some cities and towns. Cities or towns with KPDES permits are called Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4s). Permitted sources are sometimes referred to as point sources. 

    • Non-permitted sources are all other sources, including agriculture, silvaculture, properly functioning septic systems, non-MS4 towns, other storm water sources, and pre-1977 mining. Non-permitted sources are sometimes referred to as nonpoint sources.
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  23. QUESTION: What about illegal sources?

    ANSWER: Illegal sources may fall into either the KPDES-permitted or non-KPDES permitted categories, but unlike legal sources, they receive no allocation within a TMDL. Examples include sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs), straight pipes, wastewater treatment plant overflows and failing septic systems. The last two types of sources still receive the same allocation as a properly functioning system, but the amount above and beyond that is illegal and thus does not receive an allocation within the TMDL.
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  25. QUESTION: How does the TMDL regulate KPDES-permitted sources?

    ANSWER: The TMDL assigns Wasteload Allocations (WLAs) for point sources that are be implemented through the KPDES program. WLAs are expressed in terms of load, in the same units as the TMDL. For KPDES permit holders discharging bacteria, and for other pollutants where the WQC is numeric, their KPDES permit has already been written to comply with the WQC, thus normally no further load reductions are expected from such sources.
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  27. QUESTION: How does the TMDL regulate non-permitted sources?

    ANSWER: The TMDL assigns a Load Allocation (LA) for nonpoint sources. However, compliance with LAs is voluntary; some nonpoint sources are regulated by the Kentucky Agricultural Water Quality Act. KDOW does not regulate nonpoint sources. Kentucky’s 319(h) grant program and other grant programs administered by the United States Department of Agriculture and Kentucky Division of Conservation provide assistance for the installation of best management practices.
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  29. Question: What is the Margin of Safety (MOS)?

    ANSWER: The MOS is an additional amount of the pollutant set aside (that is, not allocated to any existing or future source) to account for any uncertainty in the analysis. The MOS can be explicit, or a specific amount (usually 5 percent or 10 percent of the TMDL) or implicit, which means the exact amount is unknown; an implicit MOS is usually used in TMDLs based on computer models where conservative assumptions were used. This may mean the source’s loadings were overestimated or the ability of the waterbody to handle the source loading was underestimated, and the real situation or conditions are not as bad as what was modeled.
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  31. QUESTION: What is the Future Growth-WLA?

    ANSWER: This is an amount of the TMDL set aside for the growth of KPDES-permitted sources. Sometimes a wastewater treatment plant will need to expand, or add capacity, and sometimes a MS4 will expand. Having capacity with the TMDL reserved for such events reduces the likelihood that the TMDL will have to be reopened, or redone, to accommodate such an expansion.
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  33. QUESTION: How much does each source contribute?

    ANSWER: While KPDES-permitted sources receive individual WLAs, the TMDL does not determine the relative contribution of each LA source, unless computer modeling is used.
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  35. QUESTION: Can trades be made between sources?

    ANSWER: Once the TMDL is approved, the total amount allocated to both the WLA and LA cannot change without reopening the TMDL, which requires the TMDL to be sent out to public notice, and requires EPA review and approval. Pollutant trading between the WLA and LA may be a viable option to manage pollution in a watershed, but this would need to be based on an approved pollutant trading mechanism.
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  37. QUESTION: How does the TMDL fix the problem?

    ANSWER: TMDL does not specifically fix the problem, unless a KPDES-permitted source is the only source discharging above the target in a watershed, and the WLA calls for reductions which are then implemented through the KPDES permitting program. However, it is seldom the case that a KPDES-permitted source is the sole problem in the watershed, often it is a mix of illegal sources, KPDES-permitted and non-permitted sources, and, as stated, KDOW does not regulate non-permitted sources. However, the TMDL can be used to assist voluntary compliance efforts in a watershed where non-permitted sources are discharging above a target.
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  39. QUESTION: So why develop TMDLs if they usually can’t fix the problem?

    ANSWER: As stated, TMDLs are required by the Clean Water Act. Also they can be used to regulate KPDES-permitted dischargers, to call attention to watershed issues, and the TMDL development process generates data which show more specifically where the problem areas are.
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  41. QUESTION: How do you measure the amount of pollutant in a waterbody?

    ANSWER: While some pollutants such as nutrients and metals can be measured directly, some, such as pathogenic organisms (or pathogens) cannot. Therefore, for pathogens we look at indicator organisms; 401 KAR 10:031 gives WQCs in terms of fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria.
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  43. QUESTION: Can E. coli or fecal coliform make me sick?

    ANSWER: Not directly; these indicator organisms are used to measure the likelihood of the presence of pathogens that can make you sick. Indicator organisms are used because they correlate at concentration to the likely presence of gastrointestinal pathogens that attack warm-blooded organisms and the test results can be obtained relatively quickly and cost effectively. There are standardized methods to analyze for the presence of E. coli and fecal coliform that are available to all agencies.
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  45. QUESTION: What can people do to protect themselves from bacteria in water?

    ANSWER: You can’t tell if there are high levels of bacteria and thus pathogens in water by just looking. However if the water is turbid (silty or cloudy) due to runoff from a recent rainfall, it’s best to assume that high levels of bacteria are attached to the particulates, especially in areas with straight pipes, manure or sewer overflows. You should assume high levels of bacteria are present in turbid water in other places, even if no obvious source exists. For all other times, since the level of bacteria is unknown, follow common-sense precautions:
    • Don’t swim with open wounds.
    • Wear shoes or swim shoes in areas where feet may be cut by objects on the bottom.
    • Try not to get water in your eyes or mouth.
    • Wash and/or disinfect your hands after swimming but before eating.
    • Wash your whole body as soon as practical after swimming.
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  47. QUESTION: These streams are too small for swimming.  Why does this use apply?

    ANSWER: Swimming is a use assumed after Nov. 28, 1975, under the Clean Water Act of 1972, as amended, and thus known as an existing use. Each designated use provides the management goals and objectives that are particular to each use for applicable water bodies. Water bodies are designated in Chapter 401 KAR 10:026 and the criteria necessary to implement each designated use are in Chapter 401 KAR 10:031 of the cabinet’s water quality standards. For example, those criteria applicable to manage and protect the designated use, primary contact recreation (swimming), are for pH and bacteria.
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  49. QUESTION: Why don’t you specifically protect paddlers and kayakers?

    ANSWER: We have to regulate water quality in accordance with 401 KAR 10:031. Boaters are protected by criteria for the designated use of secondary contact recreation. These criteria are found in Chapter 401 KAR 10:031 for both pH and the pathogen-indicator fecal coliform bacteria. These criteria protect for the assumed likely risk of incidental contact such as water splash and wading; any water-contact other than full body immersion.
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  51. QUESTION: How do I find where this impaired waterbody is in relation to my house?

    ANSWER: ​The easiest way to find the location of the impaired waterbody in relation to your house is to visit http://watermaps.ky.gov.  Additionally you can see the maps in the TMDL document and the Health Report, if one was completed for your watershed (older TMDLs and TMDLs based on third-party data do not contain health reports). Further information is available from EPA’s How's My Waterway. If you need any further assistance, please contact the KDOW project manager.
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  52. QUESTION: Is my drinking water safe?

    ANSWER:
    If you are on tap water, it is a Safe Drinking Water Act requirement that your water system submit testing and reports to KDOW, see http://water.ky.gov/DrinkingWater/Pages/default.aspx. You should check your annual Consumer Confidence Report or contact your local water utility. If you are on a well, you can contact the Groundwater Section at 502-564-3410 or your local health department for sampling.
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  54. QUESTION: What can the people do in the watershed to help control pollution?

    ANSWER: You can implement good housekeeping practices on any property you own, and encourage the same at the workplace. You can participate in local river cleanups, join Watershed Watch, or if there is an illegal source discharging, you can call KDOW’s complaints coordinator at 502-564-3410 and inform the operator that you wish to report a concern or complaint. Please be prepared to explain the nature of the problem and give the location of the problem, including directions to the site. You do not have to give your name; however, if you wish DOW to either contact you during the investigation or provide you with the results of the investigation, you will need to leave your name and contact information. Alternately, you can contact a regional office of the KDOW, see http://dep.ky.gov/Pages/RegionalOffices.aspx. Local health departments may also be of assistance. If a watershed plan is being implemented, further opportunities for participation likely exist. The goal is to encourage citizens to become the owners of their watershed; everyone can be part of the solution.
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  56. QUESTION: What are good housekeeping practices?

    ANSWER: The following was copied from a KDOW Health Report:
    1. Trees protect and restore water quality and biological health.
      • Leave trees in place or establish vegetation alongside streams to provide natural filters that stabilize stream banks, minimize erosion, regulate water flow, provide shade, retain sediment and absorb excess nutrients.
      • Plant trees and do not mow within 18 yards of the stream bank.
    2. To improve instream habitat
      • Allow fallen trees, logs, leaves, gravel, cobble and boulders to remain in the stream to create habitat for fish and bugs to feed, find refuge and reproduce.
      • Minimize streamside and within-stream grazing by animals.
      • Reduce sediment inputs.
    3. To keep water safe for swimming
      • Maintain functional septic systems and replace failing septic systems.
      • Properly dispose of pet waste.
      • Keep animals out of the stream.
    4. To reduce sediment inputs
      • Maintain streamside vegetation.
      • Plant cover crops.
      • Install settling ponds.
      • Reduce animal access to streamside grazing.
      • Guard waterways during construction activities.
    5. Other Tips
      • Keep grass clippings and petroleum products out of storm drains; this material enters the stream directly without treatment.
      • Dispose of trash and recyclables properly.
      • Disconnect downspouts from storm sewers.
      • Install a rain garden to absorb storm water and reduce the amount of runoff from your property.
      • Consider using porous pavement for driveways and parking lots.
      • Have your soil tested and apply fertilizers according to the results of the soil test. Apply pesticides according to label directions. Check the weather before applying fertilizers and pesticides to be sure they will be absorbed before it rains!
      • Organize a creek cleanup to remove existing liter along and within your local stream.
      • Service your vehicle regularly to prevent oil and antifreeze leaks and reduce noxious emissions.
    6. Volunteer
      • Become a certified citizen water quality monitor with Watershed Watch in Kentucky at http://water.ky.gov/wsw/Pages/default.aspx or contact Jo Ann Palmer at 800-928-0045 and/or join any local watershed group that may exist.
    7. Education
    8. Grants and Programs
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  58. QUESTION: How do you select the areas you are going to sample?

    ANSWER: Formerly, KDOW looked for areas with several impairments, and because internally we only had the capability of writing bacteria TMDLs, those were the sorts of impairments we chose, although we did have contracts with universities and consultants for other types of TMDLs. Currently, we prioritize watersheds based on where there is an interested stakeholder group that can implement a TMDL, what the recovery potential of the watershed is, and also based on logistical and management objectives.
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  60. QUESTION: I want to take my own samples, who can analyze them?

    ANSWER: KDOW does not analyze samples collected by citizens. Private laboratories will, and if you witness an illegal source discharging you can call KDOW’s complaints coordinator at 502-564-3410, but a KDOW inspector will have to take any appropriate samples.
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  62. QUESTION: How can I get you to use my data?

    ANSWER: To develop TMDLs, KDOW only uses data that have been collected under an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan, or that are generated by one of our permitting programs, or by another governmental agency that meets minimum quality standards.
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  64. QUESTION: Your TMDL doesn’t take into account improvements in the watershed since the data was collected.

    ANSWER: The TMDL is based upon the Water Quality Criteria (WQC) in 401 KAR 10:031, which do not change with time or improvements in the watershed. Therefore, TMDLs that do not rely on modeling will not be changed. However, if a watershed is being modeled, KDOW will evaluate changes in land cover, sources, climate data, hydrology, etc. for inclusion in a model in order to generate a clearer picture of existing conditions and to assist in calibrating and/or verifying the model, so long as the data are submitted by the end of the public comment period.
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  66. QUESTION: Your land cover data is too old.

    ANSWER: TMDLs must be based on existing and readily available data. KDOW tries to use the latest land cover data available at the time TMDL writing begins. Changes will usually not be made later, with the exception of a modeled TMDL, where we normally will incorporate such changes.
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  68. QUESTION: Where can I see the data you used?

    ANSWER: The data used to develop the TMDL are reported in the document. You can request any additional data we might have on a particular waterbody through a Kentucky Open Records Act (KORA) request. Contact the KORA coordinator at 502-564-3999 or DEP.KORA@ky.gov.
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  69. QUESTION: Can we have a public forum?

    ANSWER: During the public notice period, please contact the project manager at the phone number given in the press release you saw in the newspaper. At any time, you can contact the project manager if you know who this is, and if not you can call Alicia Jacobs, the TMDL section supervisor, at 502-564-3410 or email Alicia.Jacobs@ky.gov. You can also contact us by email at TMDL@ky.gov.
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  71. QUESTION: The sampling data used to develop the TMDL are too old.

    ANSWER: TMDLs must be based upon existing readily available data. Also, in the case of pollutants with a numeric WQC, the TMDL is not based on the data collected; as stated, it is based on a critical flow rate or range of critical flow rates times a TMDL target, which is the WQC. Instead, the sampling data are used to determine the existing conditions, not the allowable loading in the watershed. Therefore collecting additional data will not change the TMDL for such pollutants. In the case of pollutants with a narrative WQC, such as nutrients, the sampling data can assist in the selection of a target, and thus likely influence the calculation of the TMDL. However, as stated, TMDLs must be based on existing and readily available data, and by the time TMDL writing starts, we have evaluated the dataset and found it to be sufficient for target generation and TMDL calculation.
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  73. QUESTION: How can the public participate?

    ANSWER: There is a 30-day public comment period for the draft TMDL. KDOW will publish a notice in the newspaper of widest circulation in the area to signal the beginning of the public comment period, and to let the public know where to send comments. All comments submitted to KDOW during this period will be answered in writing. This is the opportunity for the public to submit both comments and any additional information for KDOW to consider. For modeled TMDLs, KDOW may hold additional public meetings or may set up Technical Advisory Committees comprised of local citizens and experts on the sources and conditions in the watershed to assist with model input data. You can access the TMDL website for additional information and if you would like to be added to the TMDL Listserv, email your contact information to TMDL@ky.gov.
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  75. QUESTION: Once approved, what impact does the TMDL document have on regulation?

    ANSWER: The TMDL does not create a new regulation. The TMDL is a guidance document and educational tool to lay the foundation for future work to improve water quality, except that reductions for permitted sources can be implemented through the KPDES Permitting Program.
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  77. QUESTION: What is your reasonable assurance?

    ANSWER: Implementation of TMDLs can be achieved through efforts undertaken by concerned citizen groups and organizations, watershed-based plans, the Agricultural Water Quality Act, local health departments, local government ordinances and the KPDES Program.
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  79. QUESTION: How can I get rid of this TMDL?  Can the waterbody be delisted once a TMDL is approved?

    ANSWER: Waterbodies with approved TMDLs currently are placed in Category 4A; historically there has not been a mechanism to delist such waterbodies. KDOW is exploring possibilities for delisting with EPA; in the future, we anticipate being able to move waterbodies that are shown to meet the designated use(s) for which the TMDL was written into Category 2. However, waterbodies must be moved into Category 2 by designated use, not by pollutant. To qualify for Category 2, the waterbody would have to fully meet the designated use; if other pollutants were still causing an impairment for that use, the waterbody could not be moved into Category 2, instead it would be listed in both 4A and 5.

    Also, if a waterbody does show support for the designated use for which the TMDL was written and is moved into Category 2, the TMDL will always remain in effect for the pollutant or pollutants it addresses, unless superseded by a subsequent EPA-approved TMDL. However, while the TMDL will still apply to such delisted waters, they can benefit from protections provided by Kentucky’s Anti-Degradation regulations, whereas impaired waters do not.
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  81. QUESTION: Will a watershed plan be developed?

    ANSWER: We encourage stakeholders to develop watershed plans and to create local watershed groups. For more information on Kentucky’s 319 Grant program, please contact James Roe of the Nonpoint Source (NPS) Section at 502-564-3410 or James.Roe@ky.gov, or see the NPS website water.ky.gov/Funding/Pages/NonpointSource.aspx.
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  83. QUESTION: What impact does an approved TMDL have on my drinking water well?

    ANSWER: None, with the exception that improvements may be made in the watershed during TMDL implementation that could improve the surface water quality and groundwater quality.
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  85. QUESTION: There is an impaired waterbody in our community and we don’t want a TMDL.  How can we prevent it?

    ANSWER: You can implement fixes in the watershed to address the impairment, and then collect data under a KDOW-approved Quality Assurance Project Plan to demonstrate success; if you collect sufficient data, KDOW will then formally request the delisting of the waterbody from the 303(d) list through the U.S. EPA. This action will stop production of a TMDL for that pollutant. However, if the waterbody is impaired for multiple pollutants and not all of them are delisted, TMDLs are still required for those remaining pollutants.
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  87. QUESTION: What are the next steps after the TMDL is approved (i.e. what does the TMDL mean)?

    ANSWER: Any or all of the following are possible: formation of citizens groups, writing a watershed plan, modification of permits through the KDPES program, success monitoring, TMDL revision, and voluntary best management practices (BMPs) implementation. Voluntary BMPs that may be enacted include properly maintaining septic systems, utilizing fertilizer in accordance with label directions, reducing or eliminating the use of hazardous chemicals, restricting farm animals' access to the stream, maintaining riparian buffers along the stream, cleaning up pet waste, avoiding littering, and slowing the rate of runoff from impervious surfaces. This can be accomplished by using rain barrels, rain gardens, emplacing more porous surfacing, and routing storm drains to vegetated areas. These BMPs represent a small fraction of the universe of potential remedial actions; many other types of BMPs exist for residential, agricultural, silvicultural (i.e., logging operations) and urban areas. Additional information on BMPs and watershed planning may be found at:
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